Wax Incorporation

Classroom Kits

Smears, Wax Impregnation, Wax Incorporation, Wax Retention, Wax Under Film, Wet Spots

Wax Incorporation

DESCRIPTION
Smears or dull areas in the paint film. The affected areas may feel greasy.

CAUSE
Absorption of wax into the paint film due to:
a) Application of wax polish before the paint has fully hardened.
b) Excessive or incorrect use of polish or compound.
c) Poor polishing technique.
d) Storage of wax protected vehicles under hot conditions.

PREVENTION
a) Allow the surface to harden fully before polishing.
b) Use only recommended products, use as instructed.
c) Use correct polishing techniques, ensure that the gloss level is even over the entire surface.
d) Protect stored vehicles from excessive heat.

RECTIFICATION
Apply a solvent cleaner, followed by polishing with a non-wax polish. Repeat until all wax has been bled from the surface, then repolish.

How to remove Water Spotting on your car

Classroom Kits

How to remove Water Marking, Water Spotting on your car

Water Spotting

DESCRIPTION
Circular marks, normally up to 6mm in diameter, on the surface of the paint film. The marks are usually lighter in colour than the surrounding surface.

CAUSE
Water droplets impacting on, and evaporating from, the surface. The marks may result from:
a) Exposure of the paint film to rain or water splashes before it has fully hardened.
b) Rain or water splashes on an excessively thick film of wax polish.

PREVENTION
a) Protect paint surfaces from water until fully hardened.
b) Do not allow excessive wax build up on the surface.

RECTIFICATION
Dewax the affected area, flat lightly, compound and polish, repeating if necessary. In severe cases repaint the topcoat.

Stone Chips

Classroom Kits

Chipped Paint, Stone Bruising, Stone Chips

Scratches - Stone Chips

DESCRIPTION
Damaged and broken paint film, varying in depth and extent depending on the cause.

CAUSE
Impact damage, typically caused by stone thrown up from loose road surfaces, or scratching by sharp objects.

PREVENTION
Damage caused on the road may be unavoidable, but care should be taken to protect vehicles in storage, in the paint shop or in transit.

RECTIFICATION
Rub down the affected area, feather the edges of the chips, restore the level with stopper and repaint.

Solvent Popping

Classroom Kits

Pinholing, Popping, Pops, Pop-ups, Solvent Boil, Solvent Popping

Solvent Popping

DESCRIPTION
Open topped blisters up to 1mm in diameter on the surface of the most recently applied paint film.

CAUSE
Air or solvent vapour trapped by fast drying paint forming a skin. This may be due to:
a) Poor quality or too fast thinner.
b) Excessive film thickness, or insufficient drying time between coats.
c) Compressed air pressure too low.
d) Drying temperature too high, heat source too close to the film, too hot, or applied too soon.

PREVENTION
a) Ensure that the surface is scrupulously clean.
b) Use only recommended thinner.
c) Apply paint in thin, wet films. Allow sufficient drying time between coats.
d) Use correct compressed air pressure.
e) Allow sufficient flash off time before force drying, ensure that the correct drying temperature is not exceeded.
Do not allow the heat source to be placed too close to the surface.

RECTIFICATION
Rub down to a smooth surface and repaint.

Sanding Scratches

Classroom Kits

Flatting Marks, Sanding Scratches, Scratch Opening, Scratch Swelling, Scratches

Sanding Scratches

DESCRIPTION
Surface scratches under the paint film.

CAUSE
Shrinkage of the paint film during drying causes it to follow the contours of any scratches or other finishing marks in the underlying surface. The defect results from:
a) Poor finishing of the underlying surface, abrasives too coarse, inadequate flatting, inadequate stopping
b) Colour coat applied before the primer is properly hard.
c) Insufficient paint thickness, or a too slow drying rate .
d) Incorrect mixing of paint, use of wrong or poor quality thinner.

PREVENTION
a) Use the correct grade of abrasives, use stopper on any deep scratches, flat the surface to a smooth finish.
b) Ensure that the primer is fully hardened before applying the colour coat.
c) Apply the correct paint thickness, under correct drying conditions.
d) Mix the paint thoroughly, using only recommended thinner.

RECTIFICATION
If the marks are light it may be sufficient to flat, compound and polish the affected area. In more severe cases the surface must be rubbed down until the marks are removed and then repainted.

Poor Colour Match

Classroom Kits

Miss Match, Off Colour, Off Shade, Poor Colour Match

Clouding - Mottling

DESCRIPTION
Adjacent areas exhibit differences in shade. This is most frequently noticeable on adjacent complete panels.

CAUSE
There is no single cause, the defect may result from a number of factors:
a) Use of differing or incorrect materials.
b) Inadequate mixing of the paint.
c) Fading due to weathering or exposure.
d) Incorrect application.
e) Metameric distortion (Colour variation in differing light).
f) Incorrect colour choice or use of the wrong variant of the colour.

PREVENTION
a) Use only recommended materials
b) Ensure that the paint is mixed thoroughly and correctly.
c) Protect vehicles in storage.
d) Apply materials correctly, use correct spraying technique.
e) Before painting the vehicle, spray a test panel with the paint to be used and compare with the original at different angles and in differing light.
f) Use the manufacturers colour system to select the correct colour and variant.

RECTIFICATION
Flat down the surface and repaint using the correct colour and variant.

Polishing Marks

Classroom Kits

Polishing Marks

Polishing Marks

DESCRIPTION
Microgrooves or smears on the surface of the film, typically in a curved or swirling pattern. Underlying layers may show through.

CAUSE
Abrasive damage to the paint film due to:
a) Compounding or polishing the surface before fully hardened.
b) Excessive pressure or speed of mechanical polisher.
c) Use of too coarse or ammoniacal compound or incorrect polish, dirty or coarse polishing cloth or mop.

PREVENTION
a) Allow surface to harden fully before compounding or polishing.
b) Use mechanical polishers at minimum pressure and correct speed.
c) Use the correct grade and type of compound and polish, ensure polishing cloths or mop are soft and clean.

RECTIFICATION
Allow the surface to harden fully, flat compound and polish. In severe cases, flat and repaint the surface film.

Pinholing

Classroom Kits

Pinholing, Pits, Pitting

Pinholing

DESCRIPTION
Small cavities, generally less than 1mm in diameter, occurring over stopper, filler or GRP substrate.

CAUSE
Absorption of the paint into holes in the substrate. This is due to:
a) Air inclusions in DRP resin.
b) Inadequate preparation and sealing of the substrate.
c) Poor quality filler or stopper.
d) Poor mixing of filler, poor application of filler or stopper.

PREVENTION
a) Heat to above spraying temperature prior to preparation to burst inclusions. Do not heat above 80°C to avoid distortion of the surface.
b) Inspect GRP surfaces and filled or stopped areas carefully. Stop any pinholes, spot prime and flat until smooth before priming the complete surface.
c) Use only recommended materials.
d) Mix filler correctly, apply filler and stopper in thin, smooth layers. Allow to harden fully before applying further layers and before rubbing down.

RECTIFICATION
Rub down the affected area to the primer, stop any pinholes, spot prime and flat until the surface is smooth, then repaint.

Panel Faults

Classroom Kits

Disc Marks, Panel Faults, Poor Metal Finish, Rippling, Weld Spatter, Weld Splash

Panel Faults

DESCRIPTION
Surface irregularities, typically appearing as ripples, curved, straight or crisscrossed grooves, or jagged or globular protrusions.

CAUSE
Conformation of the paint film to surface defects of the substrate. These may be due to:
a) Press or mould irregularities, poor surface finishing of the substrate, too coarse abrasion by file or disc, weld spatter.
b) Poor or insufficient filling or stopping, incorrect stopper, inadequate flatting.
c) Insufficient application of primer.
d) Applying colour over improperly dried high build primer.

PREVENTION
a) Examine the surface carefully before spraying, and correct any defects and irregularities. Use the correct grades of abrasive, use files or discs correctly, remove all weld spatter.
b) Fill or stop all defects, use the correct stopper, flat down correctly.
c) Apply an adequate thickness or primer and flat to a smooth surface.
d) Allow materials to dry or cure properly.

RECTIFICATION
Strip paint down to the substrate. Correct all defects, prepare the surface correctly and repaint.

Mapping

Classroom Kits

Contouring, Laking, Mapping, Shrinkage, Sink Back, Sinkage

Mapping

DESCRIPTION
Areas of the surface with a differing texture or degree of gloss, surrounded by clearly defined boundary or contour lines.

CAUSE
Filler or stopper incorrectly mixed, or not properly finished, primed or sealed.

PREVENTION
Mix filler or stopper correctly, apply and finish carefully and correctly.

RECTIFICATION
Rub down the affected area to a sound surface, refill or stop if necessary and prime or seal thoroughly.